EXTREMELY ANCIENT RED-HAIRED MUMMIES
Mummies of ancient Caucasian giants with red hair have been found in startlingly diverse areas of the country, from Florida to Nevada. Along with these finds ample evidence of sophisticated culture, such as fine weavings, has also been found. Then there are the members of North Dakota’s Mandan tribe, long known from the earliest days for their red hair and blue eyes. Perhaps the magnitude of the mystery they represent has been partially responsible for the lack of general knowledge about them, or has it been because of definite attempts at suppression of evidence that flouts all previous theories about origins?
GIANT MUMMIES OF SPIRIT CAVE
What do you think the international reaction would be to news that mummies were found in Egypt that predated the earliest ones ever discovered there by more than five thousand years? Surely it would be front-page news from one end of the planet to the other. Yet news that two 9,500-year-old mummies were found in America has elicited barely a whisper. You may think this is impossible or that I’m referring to some discredited rumor, but the truth could not be clearer or more convincing.
It turns out that the original discovery was made in 1940, and it has taken more than sixty years to come to light. Perhaps the only reason the public is now belatedly finding out about this earth-shattering discovery is the fact that the remains were not turned over to the Smithsonian, but kept instead by the Nevada State Museum. The original find in 1940 of two amazingly well-preserved mummies was made by Sydney and Georgia Wheeler, a husband and wife archaeological team working for the Nevada State Parks division, who were commissioned to study the archaeological effects that guano mining was having on any possible historical remains to be found in the arid caves scattered across the Nevada wastelands. (Bat guano is mined because it contains saltpeter, which is used to make fertilizer and is the main ingredient of gunpowder.)
The site was appropriately called Spirit Cave, and it is located thirteen miles east of Fallon, Nevada. In order to find the mummies and the sixty-seven related artifacts associated with the burial, the Wheelers had to dig through several feet of guano droppings that covered the base of the cave and preserved what lay underneath. The two human mummies were expertly wrapped in a highly sophisticated weaving made of tule matting that exhibited extremely fine knotting and hand weaving not thought to exist until thousands of years later. Because the mummies were sealed in bat guano the weavings are extremely well preserved, and they are arguably the greatest evidence of ancient weaving in the world, yet close to nothing is generally known about them.
THE SPIRIT CAVE MAN AT THE
MIDDLE OF ALL THE CONTROVERSY
The male mummy was in better condition and was found lying on a fur blanket, dressed in a twisted skin robe with leather moccasins on its feet and a twined mat sewn around its head and shoulders. A similar mat was wrapped around the lower portion of the body and bound under the feet. Skin remained on the back and shoulders as well as a small tuft of straight dark hair, which changed to reddish-brown when exposed to light and air. The age of the mummy was estimated at forty-five years and its height well in excess of six feet.
The original dig in 1940 was led by the Wheelers with the help of local residents, and the two mummies and sixty-seven related objects were taken to the Nevada State Museum, where they were examined and dated at between 1,500 and 2,000 years old. They were then transported to the museum’s storage facility in Carson City and promptly forgotten about. In 1996 the mummies came to the attention of Erv Taylor, an anthropologist at the University of California, Riverside, who decided that new breakthroughs in mass spectrometry dating could reveal the true age of the mummies, especially in light of the extremely good condition of the tule diamond-plaited matte wrappings and the excellent preservation of the mummified bones and associated assorted relics.
One can only imagine Taylor’s stunned reaction when the results came in. The mummies were dated to 9,400 before the present, in what is scientifically referred to as uncalibrated radio-carbon years before present (URCYP)—11.5 KYA.
Yet instead of this momentous news shattering the world of archaeology to its very roots, the Bureau of Land Management stepped into the breach and shut down all news of the discovery in 1997 when it ruled in favor of a claim by the Paiute-Shoshone tribe of Fallon, Nevada, that the bones belonged to them by rights of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA).
Although no DNA testing was allowed at the time of Taylor’s dating, the Paiute-Shoshone tribe’s claim held until pressure from the academic community forced the courts to reconsider the claims of the Bureau of Land Management related to the Indian ancestral claims. In 2006, the courts overturned the findings of the bureau and the Paiute-Shoshone tribe and allowed DNA testing of the mummy by Douglas W. Owsley, division head of Physical Anthropology at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, and Richard L. Jantz, an anthropology professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The tests revealed that the mummy was of a Caucasian origin, with a long face and cranium that most closely resembled either Nordic or Ainu ancestry and bore no ancestral relationship to either the Paiute or Shoshone tribes. Although these findings were made public and extensively covered by the local media, this groundbreaking news has received barely a glimmer of attention in the outside world.
In order to put this find in its proper context and understand the other related and equally amazing finds in this part of the western United States, it is imperative that we reconstruct the local topography of this area as it existed ten thousand years ago. Although this knowledge should be commonplace to most schoolchildren, the true map of ancient America remains a complete mystery to most all its citizens.
As it turns out, much like the Sahara region prior to 6000 BCE, the western United States prior to the gigantic Lassen volcanic explosion, posited at some time around 5000 BCE, was home to one of the biggest freshwater lakes in the world and contained a lush biodiversity that one geologist has characterized as abundant in every respect, perhaps the lushest in the world at that time, with every kind of plant and animal necessary for human life. The area of this ancient lake was immense, covering approximately 8,500 square miles in the northeast section of Nevada, bordering on California and Oregon.
It’s name is Lake Lahontan, and at its peak around eleven thousand years ago it was almost one thousand feet deep in places and was fed by the Humboldt, Walker, Truckee, and Carson River systems. Remnants of the dried-out lake can be seen at Pyramid Lake, Lake Russell, and Lake Tahoe. At its peak the lake’s resting waterline was at approximately 5,200 feet, and consequently many of the finds around its ancient shoreline are found at least at that height.
The Lenni Lenape Indians on the East Coast of America report that they originally lived in the West until their world was destroyed by fire and they were forced to migrate to the other side of the Mississippi River in search of food and shelter. When we understand that these desert regions were once home to abundant life, the other related prehistoric archaeological finds in this area become understandable and even expected, as we are no longer looking at isolated desert remains devoid of logic and contextual understanding.
Fig. 10.1. Ice age lakes in the Southwestern United States, with Red Rock Pass located on the north side of Lake Bonneville (courtesy of Ken Perry)
THE ANCIENT RED-HAIRED
GIANTS OF LOVELOCK, NEVADA
In light of this, the equally amazing finds at Lovelock Cave, eighty miles east of Reno, should come as no surprise. Once again we are dealing with a guano-filled cave on the shoreline of Lake Lahontan, in an area called the Great Basin, only this time the original find was made in 1911 and involved considerably more bodies and artifacts that, because of their highly unusual nature, are routinely criticized and dismissed by mainstream archaeology to this day, although the related finds at Spirit Cave should change all of the doubters’ minds, especially as the reality of Lake Lahontan Great Basin culture becomes more well known and accepted.
Quite simply what we are dealing with here is what the popular press at the time called “red-haired giants,” which immediately roused the hackles of mainstream academia and caused them to immediately sweep the whole unpleasant subject under the rug. Fortunately for us, the skeletons and artifacts were not sent to the Smithsonian, and although many of the pieces have disappeared from the historical record, some can still be found in local universities and museums in the area.
THE LEGEND OF THE SI-TE-CAH
The Paiute Indians have a legend about their ancestors and red-haired giants. These giants, known as the Si-Te-Cah, were a red-haired tribe of cannibals who lived near the Paiutes, often harassed them with constant war and occasionally captured victims to eat. Eventually the various Paiute groups had had enough and decided to band together to eradicate the Si-Te-Cah (translated as “tule eaters”). Legend has it that the Paiutes cornered the giants and forced them underground, into a cave system, piled brush over the entrance, and set it on fire with flaming arrows, extinguishing the Si-Te-Cah for good.
Modern historians and anthropologists have dismissed this legend as fantasy and allegorical myth, but others have claimed that archaeological finds indicate otherwise. Could there really have been a race of Caucasoid giants that inhabited North America before the Native Americans? Are the artifacts discovered in Lovelock Cave proof that history is wrong, or are they just another hoax?
Lovelock Cave first caught the attention of archaeologists in 1924, thirteen years after miners began harvesting the several-foot-thick layer of bat guano that had built up on the cave floor. The miners continued to dig until sifting out the ancient relics beneath the top layer of bat guano became too much hassle. They notified the University of California about their finds, and the excavation began.
Fig. 10.2. These skulls were photographed at the Humboldt Museum in Winnemucca, Nevada.
Fig. 10.3. L. L. Loud of the Paleontology Department of the University of California removes the famous duck decoys from Lovelock Cave.
Among the artifacts found were woven cloth, tools, duck decoys (for hunting), inscribed stones, and supposedly, very tall red-haired mummies. Thousands of pieces were found discarded outside the cave after being separated from the guano. Most of the nonhuman artifacts can be found in local museums or at the University of California Museum of Paleontology in Berkeley, but the mysterious bones and mummies are not so easy to come by. The artifacts themselves prove that an advanced culture did indeed predate the Paiute Indians, but whether the legend of red-haired giants is historically accurate remains unknown.
What is significant to note is that the scientific community has assiduously scrubbed all references to the six- to eight-foot-tall, red-haired skeletons found at the site. As will be seen, this repeated effort to clear the historical record of all references to a pre-Indian Caucasian culture in the United States can be seen as working in harmony with the NAGPRA policies of the federal government, which works on agendas based on political correctness and not objective science.
Fig. 10.4. A view from the mouth of Lovelock Cave Fig.
10.5. Heads of the exquisite tule-wrapped duck decoys from Lovelock Cave Fig.
10.6. Examples of the fine workmanship found in association with the Lovelock Cave burials
Fig. 10.7. Normal-size teeth compared with a giant jaw from Lovelock Cave
Lovelock Cave, or Horseshoe Cave, as it was then known, was originally mined for fertilizer in 1911 by two miners named David Pugh and James Hart, who were hired to mine for bat guano from the cave, to be later used as gun powder and fertilizer. They removed a layer of guano estimated to be from three to six feet deep and weighing about 250 tons. The guano was dug up from the upper cave deposits, screened on the hillside outside the cave, and shipped to a fertilizer company in San Francisco. The miners had dumped the top layers into a heap outside of the cave. They were aware of the presence of some ancient artifacts, but only the most interesting specimens were saved. As the finds began to accumulate, L. L. Loud of the Paleontology Department at the University of California was contacted by the mining company, and in the spring of 1912 he arrived to recover any materials that remained from the guano mining of the previous year. Loud also excavated Lovelock Cave for five months and reportedly collected roughly ten thousand material remains. The majority of the finds were made in refuse pits inside and outside the cave, but the University of California alleges that no comprehensive lists of the skeletons and artifacts that were found were ever made, which is quite unusual and not in keeping with the protocol of the day.
What was reported at the time was that in addition to the thousands of artifacts, mummies similar to the ones found at Spirit Cave were, in fact, unearthed. The mummies were reported as being from six to eight feet tall with red hair and lying some four feet under the surface of the cave.
Twelve years after the first excavation, in the summer of 1924, Loud returned to Lovelock Cave with M. R. Harrington of the Museum of the American Indian. It was at this time that the most famous Lovelock artifacts were found, the amazing cache of eleven duck decoys that attests to the lake culture that predominated in this region. These amazing artifacts were made from bundled tule, which the Lake Lahontan culture used much like papyrus for clothing, boats, and artistic and religious objects. The decoys were painted and feathered, and despite their rich cultural and artistic importance, again, for unknown reasons, neither the Museum of the American Indian nor the Smithsonian nor the American Museum of Natural History accepted any of these objects into their collections.
It was not until 1984 that the duck decoys were properly studied in an academic environment. At that time, A. J. T. Tull of the University of Arizona, Tucson, conducted the dating of the specimens. Duck Decoy 13/4513 was dated at 2,080 + 330 BP, and Duck Decoy 13/4512B was dated at 2,250 + 230 BCE. In addition to these duck decoys, a wide range of other materials has been recovered that includes slings, nets, sandals, tunics, and baskets. Not only are these items not on general public display, they also have never been tested as to their antiquity.
Since the scientific community refuses to acknowledge the reality of the skeletons found at Lovelock, the site has been dated by studying the coprolite droppings found in association with other artifacts on the accepted “surface floor” of the cave. Based on those findings it has been determined that the tule people had a diet rich in fish and game, and the earliest habitation of the cave has been dated to 2580 BCE. Since the remains of Spirit Cave were found in the same general area and on the shoreline of the same lake, this could mean that as the lake shrunk in size, the resident tule culture moved to recently exposed caves closer to the new shoreline, or more simply that the cave has never been properly studied and more extensive excavations could reveal continuous occupation going back at least five thousand more years to a date that corresponds to the similar cultural context of the findings at Spirit Cave.
Recently it has been confirmed that four of the ancient skulls unearthed at Lovelock Cave are, in fact, in the possession of the Humboldt Museum in Winnemucca, Nevada. According to Barbara Powell, who is director of the collection, the museum is prohibited by the state of Nevada from putting the skulls on public display because “the state does not recognize their legitimacy.” They are instead kept in the storage room and shown to visitors from all over the world only by request. In addition, Powell said that additional bones and artifacts were transferred to the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology in Berkeley, California, where they are kept but also never put on display.
Whether the Lovelock Cave mummies ever really existed or were deliberately covered up, we may never know. The existing artifacts do seem to substantiate the Paiute legend, and evidence of gigantism has been discovered, and documented, in other places across the planet. The Lovelock Cave claim seems to have all the vital pieces, except for the giant mummies themselves. Were they hidden away in some warehouse, so humanity wouldn’t see the errors of modern history? Or were they the imaginary compilation of an ancient legend and a few mysterious bones?
Fig. 10.9. The Lovelock Cave hugs the Humboldt River Fig.
10.10. The entrance to Lovelock Cave can be seen in the upper right-hand corner of the photograph.
If you want to follow the trail and perhaps answer that question, you might begin with the PDF file of a document by Loud and Harrington titled “Lovelock Cave,” published by the University of California in 1929. See appendices 3 and 4 for personal accounts of the legends of the cave. The investigators at the time did a very good job of analyzing what they could of the site. However, at that time knowledge of native U.S. archaeology and history was not what it is today, and they had so many interesting issues competing for their attention. I only wish the site and the legends could be reinvestigated today with open minds and that the original artifacts were still available.
Something to ponder in the meantime is provided by Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins, daughter of Paiute Chief Winnemucca, who related many stories about the Si-Te-Cah in her book Life Among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims.
My people say that the tribe we exterminated had reddish hair. I have some of their hair, which has been handed down from father to son. I have a dress, which has been in our family a great many years, trimmed with the reddish hair. I am going to wear it some time when I lecture. It is called a mourning dress, and no one has such a dress but my family.
GIANT SKELETON FOUND IN UTAH
THE NEW YORK SUN, AUGUST 27, 1891
The gigantic skeleton of a man, measuring 8 feet 6 inches in height, was found near the Jordan River just outside Salt Lake City, last week. The find was made by a workman who was digging an irrigation ditch. The skull was uncovered at a depth of eight feet from the surface of the ground and the skeleton was standing bolt upright. The workmen had to dig down nine feet in order to exhume it. The bones were much decayed and crumbled at the slightest touch. They were put together with great care and the skeleton was found to measure 8 feet 6 inches in height: the skull measured 11 inches in diameter and the feet 19 inches long. A copper chain, to which was attached three medallions covered with curious hieroglyphics, was found around the neck of the skeleton and near it were found a stone hammer, some pieces of pottery, an arrowhead, and some copper medals. Archaeologists believe that the original owner of the skeleton belonged to the race of mound builders.
THE FLORIDA BOG MUMMIES
Let’s now turn our attention to the northeast coast of Florida and the case of the Florida bog mummies. The original finds were made in 1982 at Titusville, Florida, when real estate developers Jack Eckerd and Jim Swanson began building a road over the one-quarter-acre Windover Pond in Brevard County, about five miles from Cape Canaveral. When their backhoe operator uncovered several skulls, the developers immediately called in local archaeologists to have a look at the ancient stained bones that were being uncovered.
Fig. 10.11. This photo clearly shows the amazing preservation of the bog mummies’ knotted red hair. Brain samples were also obtained, confirming a date of 7500 BCE (courtesy of Bullenwächer).
Despite the fact that the state of Florida has a responsibility to test finds of this nature, once the state determined that no current murder was involved, they refused to pay for proper radiocarbon dating of the bones. If not for the largesse and intellectual curiosity of Eckerd and Swanson, the age of what has been called “one of the most significant archaeological sites ever excavated” may never have been discovered at all.
Thankfully, Swanson and Eckerd paid for the radiocarbon dating out of their own pockets, and once the results came in, everyone was stunned by the findings.
Despite the fact that two anthropologists, Jerald T. Milanich of the University of Florida, Gainesville, and Glen Doran of Florida State University, were both apprised of the spectacular findings, no monies were allocated to drain the bog pond to see what else was waiting to be discovered under several feet of water. In order to facilitate a proper excavation, the two developers changed their construction plans and even donated $60,000 worth of pumping equipment to see that the pond was properly drained. Once again, no state or federal funds were forthcoming, and Doran had to spend the next two years securing private donations to facilitate the drainage of the pond.
In 1984, work finally got under way to drain the pond of its six to ten feet of water in order to gain access to the bones that were found under six feet of peat. All told, the workers had to dig 160 wells, which drained more than ten thousand gallons of water a minute, in order to finally drain the pond down to its peat base. Once it was drained, workers then used picks and shovels to dig into the peat until the ritual burials were discovered at the level of six feet under the surface of the pond’s bottom bed. One of the head archaeologists on the excavation compared digging out the peat to trying to scoop up chocolate pudding while bobbing underwater. Due to finances, only half the pond was eventually excavated, but what was found was historic.
All told, the bones of 168 individuals were recovered, ranging in age from infants to adults in excess of sixty years of age. That this was an official cemetery there can be no doubt, as the heads of all the individuals were held down by ritual stakes and the bodies were all laid on their left sides with their heads pointing to the west. The oldest skeletons were found to be in excess of 8,280 years old, and there was evidence of continual use of the burial site for more than one thousand years.
Around 8000 BCE the oceans were about three hundred feet lower than they are today, and the weather was cooler and less humid than at present. Food was plentiful in this heavily forested region of Florida, making life good for the people who buried their dead in a shallow pond near what is now Titusville. In the shadow of today’s Disney World, they hunted white-tailed deer and bobcat among the pine and oak trees and fished for bass and sunfish or scooped up turtles, frogs, and snakes.
“They enjoyed a good lifestyle,” said Doran, the Florida State University anthropologist who oversaw the Windover Pond excavation, which lasted from 1984 to 1986. “Life was a little easier than it even may have been a few thousand years later. You had a lot of different resources packed pretty densely into this area within a few kilometers walk in any direction. Clearly, this was a good place to be.”
Even more incredible was the state of preservation of the skeletons due to being sealed in the acid neutral peat. In over ninety of the skeletons actual brain matter was preserved. This allowed the scientists the unprecedented opportunity to test the intact skulls with X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The average height of the inhabitants was between 5’2″ and 5’8″, and the bodies were buried within twenty-four to forty-eight hours after death, based on the DNA and tissue that was examined. DNA testing on the bodies was conducted by Joe Lorenz, and as was the case with the skeletons at Spirit Cave in Nevada, the genomes were found to contain Haplogroup X, which is a distinct DNA marker, only found in Caucasians of generally northern European origin. That these were what are called “water burials” is evidenced by the tight textile wrapping f the body and the ritual wooden stakes that were used to secure the heads and keep the skeletons from floating to the surface. The only other evidence for this type of water burial is found in northern Europe and most specifically the British Isles.
Fig. 10.12. This bog mummy from Wales illustrates the remarkable state of preservation possible in a bog burial (courtesy of Carlos Muñoz-Yagüe). In addition, the textiles found at this site exhibit a high degree of weaving sophistication, and like the textiles found at Spirit Cave, they fly in face of the general understanding of the weaving techniques at that distant date. “To put this into context,” Doran said, “these people had already been dead for three thousand or four thousand years before the first stones were laid for the Egyptian pyramids!Despite the problems associated with gaining the finances to excavate this site, they pale in comparison with the problems that have been encountered since the passage in 1990 of the NAGPRA federal laws, now enforced arbitrarily in defense of Native American tribes’ sensibilities regarding extremely ancient skeletons. One of the major reasons the discoveries at this site are not better known and the results of the Haplogroup X DNA tests are not general knowledge can be laid at the door of the NAGPRA restrictions regarding discussion or exhibition of any of these ancient finds, as it would be considered sacrilege by the local Indian tribes of the area. The irony about this slavish obedience to local American Indian sensibilities is that at both the Spirit and Lovelock Caves in Nevada and the now numerous bog sites in Florida, the Indians’ own native lore speaks of the original inhabitants of the area as being white-skinned, red-haired giants. The vast number of finds at Windover Pond caused archaeologists to reappraise other bog and water burial sites found in that area of Florida, and what they have found is even more astonishing in terms of dating in relation to the original inhabitants. The other Florida bog burial sites that are now officially recognized as being from the same general era date, incredibly in some cases, to 12,000 BCE and before. The first of these burial sites is located on the western coast of Florida, a little over midway down the coast, in Little Salt Springs on U.S. Route 41 in North Port, Florida, which is located in Sarasota County. In the 1950s, scuba divers in the area discovered that this seemingly small freshwater pond was actually a sinkhole or cenote that extended more than two hundred feet down to its peat moss base. Later underwater mapping revealed that the lake was actually forty-five feet deep, and an inverted cone shaft dropped vertically from the bottom another 245 feet, and that its general shape resembled similar cenotes found in the Yucatan peninsula. During unofficial dives in the 1960s and 1970s, bones and other human and animal remains were discovered, both in the peat moss base and along the sides of the shaft, and in 1979 the pond was added to the National Register of Historic Places and in 1982 was officially gifted to the University of Miami so that it could be preserved and catalogued in proper academic fashion. Although bone, wood, stone, and charcoal objects dating from 4000 to 12,000 BC have been found there, it is the hundreds of human burials dating from 3000 to 6000 BCE that are causing controversy at the site. Although the site has been in the possession of the University of Miami since 1982, it has not been under the supervision of anyone from the archaeology department, but instead has been overseen by Associate Professor John Gifford of the university’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, and it was not until 2009 that the William and Marie Selby Foundation donated $100,000 to support studying the remains found in the spring in a more comprehensive manner, in conjunction with John Francis, vice president of research, conservation, and exploration at National Geographic. Although a majority of the hundreds of burials have been recovered with brain tissue intact, as was the case with the Windover Pond mummies, the university alleges that no definitive DNA Haplogroup evidence has been obtained so far, which is ridiculous and, if true, argues very badly for the scientific reputation of the university. Finds similar to those found at Windover Pond and Little Salt Springs have also been reported at Bay West in Collier County near Naples, on the west coast of Florida, south of Little Salt Springs. The bones at this site have been dated to between 4000 and 6000 BCE, and despite the fact that the site has been known about for more than thirty years, no other information regarding DNA status has so far been released. Similar finds in Republic Grove in Hardee County have also been found to date between 5,500 and 6,500 years ago. In terms of human dating the most spectacular finds in Florida so far are those made at Warm Springs, another sinkhole found in the city of North Port, on the western coast of Florida. Unfortunately for history, the Warm Springs sinkhole was virtually stripped bare by amateur divers before the city of North Port in Sarasota County finally bought it for $5.5 million at the end of 2010. The sinkhole is an hour-glass-shaped structure approximately 250 feet deep with a peat moss base like its sister sinkhole in Little Salt Springs, which is also in the city of North Port. Scuba divers led by Col. Bill Royal began diving in the sinkhole in the 1950s and almost immediately began finding human and animal remains, including the skeletons of giant ground sloths, saber-toothed tigers, horses, and camelids dating up to twelve thousand years old. Unfortunately the site was turned into a health spa in the 1960s, and guests were encouraged to dive the site and take home any artifacts they found while they were exploring underwater.In 1972 Wilburn Cockrell of Florida State University became aware of the importance of the site and explored there from 1972 to 1975 and again from 1984 to 1986. During that time he reported finding twenty skeletons with their skulls held in place with ritual wooden stakes, all resting on their left sides with their heads turned to the west in the exact same manner as the skeletons found at the adjacent sinkholes in Little Salt Springs and Windover Pond. Also consistent with the other finds, intact brain matter was also recovered, and radiocarbon dating placed the oldest of the skeletons at 9000 BCE. The skeletons on average were between 5’6″ and 6’2″ tall. Cockrell also found a variety of grave goods and artifacts and is convinced that this was a major burial ground that at one time probably contained thousands of burials and artifacts, which were stripped from the site during its history as a recreational diving hole. Although intact brain matter has been recovered from the site, Florida State University has never released any DNA testing on the Haplogroup status of the skeletons in question, but since the burial methods are identical to those found at Windover Pond, one can safely assume that they are also of Haplogroup X. THE LOST KINGDOM OF THE REDHAIRED, BLUE-EYED INDIANS The Mandan Indians are generally found in North Dakota, and since their first contact with French explorers in 1738, this blond- and red-haired, blue-eyed tribe has been the source of intense speculation as to their European origins. In 1796, the Mandans were visited by the Welsh explorer John Evans, who was hoping to find proof that their language contained Welsh words. Evans had arrived in St. Louis two years prior, and after being imprisoned for a year, was hired by Spanish authorities to lead an expedition to chart the upper Missouri. Evans spent the winter of 1796–1797 with the Mandans but found no evidence of any Welsh influence. In July 1797 he wrote to Dr. Samuel Jones, “Thus having explored and charted the Missurie for 1,800 miles and by my Communications with the Indians this side of the Pacific Ocean from 35 to 49 degrees of Latitude, I am able to inform you that there is no such People as the Welsh Indians.” In 1804, Lewis and Clark spent time visiting with the tribe, and it was here that they met Sacagawea, who later aided them as a scout and translator. Then, even later, in 1833, Western artist George Catlin, who was also convinced of their European roots, lived with the tribe and painted their village life and religious ceremonies. Although traditional archaeologists reject outright any European heritage for this mysterious tribe, no definitive Haplogroup X testing has ever been done on any of the surviving tribe members, and until scientific blood work is performed, all theories as to their original origins are purely based on superstition, academic bias, and ill-founded opinions.